Spousal maintenance is typically awarded in a divorce so that one spouse can continue to live the life that they were accustomed to living before the divorce. Often in these situations, one spouse is making significantly more than the other, or one has taken time off from his or her career to raise children and is no longer in the workforce. In order to ensure that that parent is not left stranded after a divorce and effectively punished for sacrificing career obligations for family obligations, the court requires that the working spouse give some amount of money, on a monthly basis, to the spouse who was not working or was working a lower-paying job. Spousal maintenance is not necessarily a permanent payment, and it can change over time or with a change in circumstances. Sometimes it may only be awarded until the spouse who is receiving the maintenance has time to get back on his or her feet. A recent case before the Wisconsin Court of Appeals looks at when a change in circumstances can justify spousal maintenance payments being reduced or eliminated altogether.
The termination of parental rights is a court remedy that is taken very seriously, and it involves significant collaboration across the judicial and administrative systems. While courts may order parental arrangements and coordinate temporary physical custody of children deemed to be in danger at home, through Children in Need of Protection or Services (CHIPS) orders, divisions of child welfare, like the Division of Milwaukee Child Protective Services, are charged with implementing these orders, arranging visitation schedules, and ensuring the continued protection of children and representation of their best interests. A recent case before the Court of Appeals of Wisconsin looks at what happens when visitation cannot be adequately implemented by child services organizations, and how this affects judicial decisions regarding termination.
In In Re Termination of Parental Rights of B.M.R., F.J.R. was mother to two children, B.M.R. and B.H.T. B.M.R. was removed from her home when she was two years old due to lack of adult supervision. F.J.R. drank heavily during her pregnancy with B.H.T., and B.H.T. was also removed from the home shortly after birth. In 2013, the court entered CHIPS orders for both children that required F.J.R. to seek treatment for mental health and substance abuse issues and also established conditions for visitation with the children. Under the CHIPS orders, B.M.R. also received mental health treatment for violent and disruptive behavior. Over time, therapists began to notice that B.M.R.’s behavior worsened significantly before and after visits with F.J.R., and it was recommended that visitation be conducted in the presence of a therapist. When B.M.R.’s behavior continued to worsen, the state of Wisconsin sought a court order to temporarily suspend visitation altogether based on B.M.R.’s best interests. The court granted the order and suspended visitation. Petitions to terminate parental rights were also filed, and trial was set for shortly thereafter. At trial, the jury held that based on a failure to assume parental responsibility and B.M.R.’s continued need for protection, the termination of parental rights was justified. F.J.R. appealed.
Determining child support payments in Wisconsin can be a complicated calculus, one that requires special consideration of the placement of the children, the income of both parents, their likely future income, and any other types of special contributions that an individual may be making to a household. Artificially low payments can significantly affect a primary parent’s ability to pay for the things that children need, while payments that are too high can make it almost impossible for the secondary parent to be able to make ends meet. Courts are often in the precarious position of trying to do the best that they can under the circumstances, hoping to protect the interests of all parties. In some situations, however, parties may attempt to manipulate the system in order to make payments lower than they should be. When this happens, as illustrated in the case below, courts may take action in order to ensure that child support payments remain fair.
The termination of parental rights in Wisconsin is a very serious issue. Courts do not take requests for the termination of rights lightly, since any outcome can have grave consequences for all of the parties involved. In evaluating a petition for the termination of parental rights, courts will look primarily at whether termination is in the best interest of the child, and which circumstances will best ensure the child’s future success and happiness. As illustrated in the case below, in some circumstances, this can mean terminating the rights of biological parents in order to allow a child to be adopted by foster parents or other individuals.
The modification of spousal maintenance is an issue that arises frequently after a divorce. In some cases, a party may not be satisfied with the original maintenance award issued by the court and may try to have it changed after the requisite period of time has passed. In other instances, circumstances may change for one or both parties, causing a party to file for the modification of an award. Although many modifications are warranted, courts do not take such requests lightly and will require parties to prove that there is a significant basis for changing a maintenance award. A recent case before the Court of Appeals of Wisconsin looks at both acceptable and unacceptable bases for modification.
Dealing with divorce is never easy. It can be emotionally, mentally, and financially draining. On top of the many practical adjustments and changes to life routines, ex-spouses must deal with the complicated and lengthy nature of divorce proceedings, which can be particularly difficult when a divorce is contentious. While litigants may often wish to ignore what is going on in their legal case and turn away from dealing with tough issues, this kind of an approach can cause significant problems during a divorce. As a recent case before the Wisconsin Court of Appeals illustrates, when one spouse chooses not to participate or be cooperative in divorce proceedings, it can lead to sanctions down the road.
In Wisconsin, courts may consider a wide range of factors when determining custody between two divorcing parents. Among these factors, Wisconsin courts are statutorily required to consider evidence of past domestic abuse. Wisconsin’s statutes do not require that a past history of abuse be dispositive, but it must be one of the factors that a court considers. A recent case before the Wisconsin Court of Appeals illustrates how this factor may be weighed against others in evaluating custody arrangements.
When a couple divorces and reaches an agreement on issues such as child support and spousal maintenance, the terms of that agreement are considered final. They can only be changed through a petition to the court arguing that there has been a substantial change in circumstances that warrants a change in financial arrangements. What constitutes a substantial change in circumstances is largely up to the discretion of the court considering the case, and many different factors may be considered. A recent Wisconsin case looks at whether changes in income by one or both parties can justify a change in child support amounts.
When dealing with family law matters, it can be difficult to ascertain the true interests of the parties and all those affected, without conducting an evidentiary hearing. While briefs and motions can be carefully crafted in order to present the story from a party’s particular perspective, hearings are often necessary to understand the full details of a situation and the true impact that any changes to a custody order, or maintenance plan, are likely to have on those involved. At the same time, courts are often constrained by time and resources from conducting hearings on every occasion, and may opt instead to hold hearings only in those cases where they are most necessary. A recent case before the Wisconsin Court of Appeals looks at whether courts are required to hold hearings in some circumstances and whether that is a basis for appeal.
Child custody and placement can be one of the most contentious aspects of any divorce. Parents feel strongly about spending time with their kids and having a long-lasting and healthy relationship with them. Splitting time between both spouses can make that difficult and can lead to anger and resentment between ex-spouses. In a recent case before the Wisconsin Court of Appeals, the court considered what to do when one spouse asks to modify the child custody arrangement to which she previously agreed.